Recep Tayyip Erdoğan’s electoral victory in May 2023 bears witness to several features about contemporary strongman leaders in the non-western world – among others, Narendra Modi in India, Rodrigo Duterte in the Philippines, and Jair Bolsonaro in Brazil. First, they are popular. Second, their popularity, at least in large part, builds on the successful manipulation
Cecilie Endresen and Arild Engelsen Ruud
Cecilie Endresen is an associate professor in the study of religion. Her research is primarily centered on Islam and pluralism in Europe, as well as religion, identity, and politics in Southeast Europe and the Philippines. Arild Engelsen Ruud is Professor of South Asia Studies at the University of Oslo, Norway. His research focuses on political culture in South Asia, popular perceptions of democracy, and political leadership and practices. He received his PhD from the London School of Economics.