“Languages” to “dialects of Hindi”: A relegation of the languages of Bihar in the agenda of Hindi nationalism

India, unlike several European countries, does not have any ‘national language’. Article 343 (1) of the Indian Constitution says “Hindi” (written in Devnagri script) is one of the “official languages” alongside English. Additionally, the eighth schedule of the Indian constitution recognises 22 scheduled (regional) languages, of which only one language of Bihar, Maithili, was added